Utilization of a model hepatotoxic compound, diglycolic acid, to evaluate liver Organ-Chip performance and in vitro to in vivo concordance

Organ Model: Liver

Application: ADME-Tox

Abstract: Microphysiological systems (MPS) are emerging as potentially predictive models for drug safety and toxicity assessment. To assess the utility of these systems, the Food and Drug Administration partnered with Emulate to evaluate the Human Liver Organ-Chip in a regulatory setting. Diglycolic acid (DGA), a known hepatotoxin, was evaluated in the Liver-Chip and compared to a multi-well plate format to assess the Liver-Chip’s capabilities, limitations, overall performance, and concordance with other in vivo and in vitro studies. Cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes were exposed to DGA from 1 to 20 mM in Liver-Chips or traditional multi-well plates. We found that 10 mM or 20 mM of DGA was severely cytotoxic in both platforms, while 5 mM was mildly cytotoxic in Liver-Chips. Additionally, some hepatocyte functions were reduced with 5 mM DGA in Liver-Chips and 1 mM in well plates. Individual well effects were greater or occurred sooner than in the Liver-Chips. Examination of the performance of the Liver-Chip showed that variability was low for biochemical endpoints, but higher for imaging endpoints. Sensitivity and specificity were high. Only 3-4 Liver-Chips were necessary to detect an effect depending on the endpoint and effect size. The specifics of the experiment are found herein.